Small-Flowered Buttercup, Littleleaf Buttercup, Kidneyleaf Crowfoot, Kidneyleaf Buttercup, Small-Flowered Crowfoot
Synonyms of Ranunculus abortivus (13) (Updated from Plants of the World Online on 3-18-21): Ranunculus abortivus var. acrolasius Fernald, Ranunculus abortivus f. coptidifolius Fernald, Ranunculus abortivus var. eucyclus Fernald, Ranunculus abortivus f. giganteus F.C.Gates, Ranunculus abortivus var. indivisus Fernald, Ranunculus abortivus var. nitidus (Walter) DC., Ranunculus abortivus f. pratensis G.Lawson, Ranunculus abortivus f. sylvaticus G.Lawson, Ranunculus abortivus var. typicus Fernald, Ranunculus holmii Greene, Ranunculus michiganensis Farw., Ranunculus nitidus Walter, Ranunculus ruderalis Greene
Ranunculus abortivus L. is the correct and accepted scientific name for this species of Buttercup. The genus and species were named and described as such by Carl von Linnaeus in the first volume of the first edition of Species Plantarum in 1753.
Plants of the World Online lists a whopping 1,660 species in the Ranunculus genus (as of 3-18-21 when I am last updated this page). The genus is a member of the plant family Ranunculaceae with a total of 52 genera. Those numbers are likely to change periodically updates are made.
THERE ARE SEVERAL LINKS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE FOR FURTHER READING AND TO HELP WITH A BETTER POSITIVE ID.
There are several species of Ranunculus here on the farm in west-central Missouri. Some of the species are VERY difficult to tell apart but Ranunculus abortivus is somewhat easier.
One of the early spring wildflowers on the farm is Ranunculus abortivus. The species goes by several common names including Small-Flowered Buttercup, Littleleaf Buttercup, Kidneyleaf Buttercup, Kidneyleaf Crowfoot, and Small-Flowered Crowfoot. I am sure there are others.
The Ranunculus abortivus produces many glabrous (not hairy) stems from the base of the plant. Some of the stems grow upright while some sprawl somewhat.
Plants of the World Online list a whopping 1,660 species in the Ranunculus genus found throughout most of the world, a least on every continent. I “think” I may have identified seven species right here on the 40 acre farm I live on, but I am not 100% certain. Some are so much alike it is very hard to tell the difference, and, as I have so often heard, they are somewhat variable… So, I wind up taking a lot of photos and going back and forth from one colony to the other, and from the computer back to the colonies.
I am, not a botanist or horticulturalist but I have learned to understand botanical terminology when it comes to plant anatomy. I prefer to use layman’s terms so I can understand my own descriptions while sometimes getting you acquainted with botanical terminology. This species has a few leaf types like most species.
The basal leaves are kind of round or kidney-shaped (reniform) and have long petioles (stem between the base of the leaves and the stem of the plant) and have scalloped edges. The leaves and petioles are glabrous (not hairy).
The lower leaves on the stem (cauline) have shorter petioles, are deeply divided into three lobes, with scalloped margins. The upper cauline leaves have either very short petioles or are sessile (no petioles). The flowering stems emerge from the adaxial of the upper cauline leaves.
The above photo shows how long the petioles of the basal leaves are. These leaves are not the same as the lower leaves on the stem.
I photographed this small colony next to the elm trees behind the chicken house. As you can see, it has a multitude of flowering stems.
Each stem terminates with 1-3 flowers. The small flowers consist of 5 yellow petals, 5 green sepals, green carpels, 20 or more stamens emerging from the base of the pistols. The anthers and filaments are bright yellow.
A multitude of flowers for sure!
I always take a lot of photos because you never know when some are too blurry. If they aren’t blurry, they go on the plant’s page even though I may not have enough words without repeating myself. 🙂
The flowers are so small it is very hard to get good close-ups. I don’t know how many photos I took trying, but there were A LOT… Practice makes perfect and sometimes it seems to take several years to get a perfect shot. Most of what you see in the above photo are the fruit and it was only April 23!
Well, what can I say. A bud, a flower, and fruit…
The common names Kidneyleaf Crowfoot and Small-Flowered Crowfoot come from the upper leaves.
A close-up of where a flowering branch is emerging from the adaxial of the upper leaves.
As you can see, the leaves and stems are glabrous (hairless)…
Ummm… the leaf on the right has hair!
The above photo is somewhat suspicious and very fuzzy… Ummm… Ranunculus abortivus isn’t supposed to have hair… SO, what plant did I take this photo of anyway? WELL, I do know all the photos from 4-23-20 were taken of the same colony and all within a few minutes. A similar species, Ranunculus micranthus, is VERY HAIRY. That is the problem of updating and adding photos and descriptions over the winter. I can’t go check… I am fairly certain (laughing) the photos on this page are Ranunculus abortivus. How certain is a secret. 🙂 I will have to forward this photo to an expert.
Oh, yeah… I read where the “receptacle” of Ranunculus abortivus is pubescent (hairy) and the receptacle on R. micranthus is hairless… To find this, I need to remove the flowers carpels, sepals, and petals. Also, the achenes (seed) of R. abortivus have a shiny surface while those of R. micranthus are dull. Hmmm… I read that on Illinois Wildflowers.
The Ranunculus abortivus is normally found in part shade in moist, fairly fertile loamy soil. They can also grow around ponds and areas where the soil has more clay.
SO, in 2021, I need to take better close-ups of the flowers and not mostly of the fruit. I need to check for hairs on the receptacles and the seed to see if they are shiny or dull… I became fairly busy in the summer of 2020 so I didn’t take many photos during that time. Hopefully, I will have more time in 2021 to keep an eye on this colony…
I have enjoyed photographing and learning about the many wildflowers growing on the farm and other areas. My farm is in Windsor, Missouri in Pettis County (Henry County is across the street and Benton and Johnson aren’t far away). I have grown over 500 different plants and most have pages listed on the right side of the blog. I am not an expert, botanist, or horticulturalist. I just like growing, photographing, and writing about my experience. I rely on several websites for ID and a horticulturalist I contact if I cannot figure them out. Wildflowers can be somewhat variable from location to location, so sometimes it gets a bit confusing. If you see I have made an error, please let me know so I can correct what I have written.
I hope you found this page useful and be sure to check the links below for more information. They were written by experts and provide much more information. Some sites may not be up-to-date but they are always a work in progress. If you can, I would appreciate it if you would click on the “Like” below and leave a comment. It helps us bloggers stay motivated. You can also send an email to me at firstname.lastname@example.org. I would enjoy hearing from you especially if you notice something is a bit whacky.
NOTE: Plants of the World Online is the most up-to-date database. It is very hard for some to keep with name changes these days so you may find a few discrepancies between the websites. Just be patient. Hopefully, someday they will be in harmony. 🙂
FOR FURTHER READING:
PLANTS OF THE WORLD ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
INTERNATIONAL PLANT NAMES INDEX (GENUS/SPECIES)
WORLD FLORA ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
KANSAS WILDFLOWERS AND GRASSES
FRIENDS OF THE WILDFLOWER GARDEN
NOTE: The figures may not match on these websites. It depends on when and how they make updates and when their sources make updates (and if they update their sources or even read what they say). Accepted scientific names change periodically and it can be hard to keep with. In my opinion, Plants of the World Online by Kew is the most reliable and up-to-date database and they make updates on a regular basis. We are all a work in progress. 🙂