Black-Eyed Susan, Orange Coneflower, Sullivant’s Coneflower
Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’
rud-BEK-ee-ah FULL-jih-dah sul-lih-VANT-ee-eye
1999 Perennial Plant of the Year
Synonyms of Rudbeckia fulgida (14) (Updated on 10-24-21 from Plants of the World Online): Centrocarpha fulgida (Aiton) D.Don ex G.Don, Helianthus fulgidus (Aiton) Krause
Synonyms of Rudbeckia fulgida var. fulgida (autonym) (12) (Updated on 10-24-21 from Plants of the World Online): Centrocarpha acutifolia Sweet, Centrocarpha chrysomela (Michx.) G.Don, Centrocarpha discolor (Pursh) D.Don, Rudbeckia acuminata C.L.Boynton & Beadle, Rudbeckia aspera Desf., Rudbeckia chrysomela Michx.,Rudbeckia discolor Pursh, Rudbeckia foliosa C.L.Boynton & Beadle, Rudbeckia newmanii Loudon, Rudbeckia scabra E.Vilm., Rudbeckia tenax C.L.Boynton & Beadle, Rudbeckia truncata Small
Synonyms of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii (2) Updated on 10-24-21): Rudbeckia speciosa var. sullivantii (C.L.Boynton & Beadle) B.L.Rob., Rudbeckia sullivantii C.L.Boynton & Beadle
The species Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton was named and described by William Aiton in Hortus Kewensis in 1789.
Accepted infraspecific names of Rudbeckia fulgida (7) (Updated 10-24-21): Rudbeckia fulgida var. deamii (S.F.Blake) Perdue, Rudbeckia fulgida var. fulgida (autonym), Rudbeckia fulgida var. palustris (Eggert ex C.L.Boynton & Beadle) Perdue, Rudbeckia fulgida var. spathulata (Michx.) Perdue, Rudbeckia fulgida var. speciosa (Wender.) Perdue, Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii (C.L.Boynton & Beadle) Cronquist, Rudbeckia fulgida var. umbrosa (C.L.Boynton & Beadle) Cronquist. When infraspecific taxon are named, an autonym (“type-specimen”) is usually automatically generated whose description is closest to the (original) species. I am not sure how the species and the autonym can have different synonyms…
Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii (C.L.Boynton & Beadle) Cronquist is the correct and accepted scientific infraspecific name for this cultivar. It was named and described as such by Arthur John Cronquist in Rhodora in 1945. It was previously described as Rudbeckia sullivantii by C.L. Boynton and Chauncey Delos Beadle in Biltmore Botanical Studies in 1901.
The genus, Rudbeckia L., was named and described by Carl von Linnaeus in the second volume of the first edition of Species Plantarum in 1753.
Plants of the World Online still lists 24 accepted species in the Rudbeckia genus (as of 10-24-21 when this page was last updated). Rudbeckia is a member of the Asteraceae Family with 1,677 genera. Those numbers could change as updates are made on POWO. The number of genera in this family fluctuates quite often.
The cultivar ‘Goldsturm’ was introduced by Karl Foerster of Potsdam, Germany in 1937. It is more compact and bushier than the species with larger and brighter flowers. The industry often offers this plant as Rudbeckia ‘Goldstrum’.
THERE ARE SEVERAL LINKS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE FOR FURTHER READING.
My Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ was given to me by a good friend and fellow plant collector, Walley Morse, of Greenville, Mississippi. I’m not sure if he gave it to me in the fall of 2011 or the spring of 2012. I planted it in the corner bed by the front porch and west sunroom where it did very well.
Sullivant’s Coneflower is the common name for the former Rudbeckia sullivantii which is now a synonym of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii. Many Rudbeckia species, including Rudbeckia fulgida, are quite variable from one location to another. This has led to several taxonomic disputes. The other dispute is the common name. Rudbeckia fulgida and Rudbeckia hirta are both called the Brown-Eyed Susan and Black-Eyed Susan depending on what site you are on. So, the common names include Black or Brown-Eyed Susan (take a pick because I am confused most of the time), Sullivant’s Coneflower (transferred from Rudbeckia sullivantii), and is usually called Orange Coneflower.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae).
Origin: North America.
Zones: USDA Zones 3a-9b (-40 to 25° F).
Size: 24-36” tall and wide.
Light: Sun to part shade.
Soil: Average, well-drained soil.
Water: Average water needs. Prefers consistent moisture but are somewhat drought tolerant.
Notes: Deadhead flowers for repeat bloom and to keep the plant tidy.
They aren’t really that particular about the soil type as long as it is well-drained and moderately fertile. They prefer consistent moisture, but they are also somewhat drought tolerant. If they start to droop, it is a good sign they need a little water.
Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ is a long-lived perennial that spreads by underground rhizomes. They produce masses of bright yellow flowers with brown cones throughout the summer without fail. The flowers are enjoyed by butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
My first summer with the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ went very well. It was a constant bloomer for sure. The only maintenance is removing spent flowers to keep it looking tidy and to encourage more flowers.
<<<<2013 IN MISSOURI>>>>
After I sold the mansion in Mississippi, dad wanted me to move back to the family farm in mid-Missouri. So, in February 2013, I made the move. I gave up around 200 potted plants but brought many plants with me including the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’.
I made a new bed along the south side of my parent’s home which is where I originally put this plant. There were some issues, though.
Rudbeckia fulgida is one of nine species of Rudbeckia that are native to Missouri. However, the Missouri Department of Conservation website only has information on three species and Rudbeckia fulgida isn’t one of them.
I put most of the perennials I brought from Mississippi in the new south bed. I also bought several more plants from an Ebay seller and put most of them in this same bed. There were already a group of Cannas and two Crap Myrtles (I mean, Crape Myrtles).
I first moved to this farm after my grandpa (my mother’s father) passed away in April 1981. Grandpa’s house was on the other side of the driveway in what is now called the “other yard” or “over there”, which is where I lived. There were a few Crape Myrtle bushes along the south side of the house which I didn’t like. One year they didn’t come back up so I planted a row or Red Barberry. Well, after that, a few Crape Myrtle sprouts would come up now and then. After I moved, dad got rid of the Red Barberry because he didn’t like the thorns. Of course, the Crape Myrtle continued to pop up even though the bushes were supposed to be dead. Dad took two of those sprouts and put on the south side of their new home. GEEZ! It is like the dead came back to haunt me even after so many years away.
Anyway, those two Crap (Crape) Myrtle bushes were big problems when I was trying to have a nice flower bed on the south side of the house. My first idea was to get the tractor and yank them out but I wasn’t sure that would be allowed. Even though dad told me I could do what I wanted here, I wasn’t sure if my hidden agenda to get rid of the Crap Myrtle would be approved of… As far as shrubs go, I guess they would be OK if their flowers were white or blue. Instead, they are pink and I am not a pink person. The other is their location. I don’t want bushes that want to take over space smack in the middle of my flower beds…
<<<<2014 IN A NEW LOCATION>>>>
I decided things had to change with the south bed but didn’t know exactly what to do with it. OH, I knew what I wanted to do with it and it wasn’t for the fact that “this isn’t my house” thought that keeps popping into my head, it would already be done. BUT, I went for another option. I moved the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ to the bed on the north side of the house. This meant instead of full sun, it would now be in part-shade. The soil here also stays damp longer than the south side and it is flat. The south side had kind of a slope… That’s OK because this plant prefers consistently moist soil…
I must say, this plant did amazingly well here and pretty much grew like a weed. 2014 was the year I bought the Pineapple Sage (Salvia elegans) from Wagler’s Greenhouse which was AWESOME. I had also bought several Coleus, three of which were unnamed varieties from Harrison’s Greenhouse. They grew SO HUGE!
As you can see in the above photo, the Coleus on the left was taller than the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ and it usually gets about 30″ tall.
Even though it was only March, the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ was one of the first perennials to come up. It is always such a relief when perennials start to emerge from their winter sleep. It is a sign that spring is right around the corner. March is still pretty early and there could be plenty of cold weather and snow before the coast is clear.
It was good to see that this plant had spread. Even though they are dormant, it seems they still spread over the winter under the soil. There certainly weren’t this many before!
As the temps start warming up even more, this plant gets growing.
Its leaves get pretty large before it starts to flower.
Still at it on October 3 in 2015
Even though I didn’t seem to have taken any photos of any of the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ plants in 2016, I did move them around somewhat. I planted a few along the southeast corner of the foundation in “the other yard” and a few in the northeast corner bed next to the foundation. (The foundation of my grandparent’s old house where I lived in the early 1980’s.) The above photo is one of them in the northeast corner bed.
The above photo is in the bed on the north side of my parent’s home, which was the second location for this plant. GEEZ! I feel like I need a map…
Again, the above photo of the plant in the north bed…
And, again, from the northwest corner bed along the old foundation… This bed is a combination of Iris, Horseradish, Rudbeckia hirta, Rhubarb, and Marigold ‘Brocade’. One thing about it, all that shade eliminates weeding.
Finally, the plants in the southeast corner of the foundation. Well, I suppose that isn’t actually right either. This spot is kind of in the middle, like an inside corner kind of… This spot is difficult because grandpa had planted Bermuda grass in this area… Trying to control Bermuda grass is close to impossible so keeping it out of your beds is very hard. I remember the Bermuda grass growing out of the top of the downspouts here in the early 1980’s…
The red flowers in this photo are Salvia coccinea. I always plant the bigger Colocasia esculenta in this bed and in 2017 I planted the Leucocasia gigantea ‘Thailand Giant’. Of course, as always, I put a few Coleus in this bed as well…
After a long cold winter, the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ is coming up strong and ready for the summer of 2018.
The above photo was taken on May 6, 2018, is of the plants in the northeast corner bed of the old foundation. There are still plants on the other side of the foundation and in the north bed by our house. I am thinking about putting a few back on the south side of the house and maybe in front of the chicken house and by the barn.
Now, that’s a lot of yellow!
Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ next to the Hosta ‘Empress Wu’ in the bed on the north side of the house on August 1, 2018. The amount of shade in this bed keeps the Rudbeckia from spreading like it does in the sun in the other bed.
We didn’t have as cold a winter this year but we did have periods of snow. I pushed some leaves back on March 10 and saw the Rudbeckia was growing new leaves.
The Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ has spread even more than before. They have done really well in this location in the bed on the northeast corner of the old foundation. I will probably need to thin somewhat.
Rudbeckia hirta, a native species on the farm, grows here and there in several beds and throughout the farm. A nice patch has grown in the bed on the northeast corner of the old foundation along with the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’. You can definitely see the difference. After the Rudbeckia hirta flowered they got mildew and died. They didn’t return in 2020.
New buds on the Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldstrum’ on July 9, 2019.
A few of the flowers have opened by July 26, 2019, and more are almost ready to burst.
Getting there on July, 4…
All aglow on August 11, 2019. They like it in this bed…
Back at it and looking GREAT on 6-20-20.
All I can say is “WOW” when they look like this…
I took a few Rudbeckia fulgida var sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ to the church and put them in the bed in front of the steps. I put Echinacea purpurea in the center andthe Rudbeckia on both sides. I didn’t decide to do this until after they started flowering, so they struggled a little for a few weeks because of the heat. BUT, for some weird reason, the plants on the right side of the bed continued to flower long after all the rest had stopped (even at home). Even after several “F’s” (I hate saying the word frost or freeze), they continued to flower. Nature can be weird sometimes…
Well, I didn’t take any photos of these in 2021 but I assure you they did great over the summer. I am sure they will return with flying colors in 2022.
More photos to come as time goes by…
I hope you enjoyed this page and maybe found it useful. If you have any comments, questions, or suggestions, I would like to hear from you. Please click on “like” if you visited this page. It helps us bloggers stay motivated. 🙂 You can check out the links below for further reading. The links take you directly to the genus and species of this plant.
FOR FURTHER READING:
PLANTS OF THE WORLD ONLINE
MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN
ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY