Venus’s Looking Glass, Venus’ Looking Glass, Clasping Bellflower
Synonyms of Triodanis perfoliata (5) (Updated on 6-19-21 from Plants of the World Online): Campanula perfoliata L., Legousia perfoliata (L.) Britton, Pentagonia perfoliata (L.) Kuntze, Prismatocarpus perfoliatus (L.) Sweet, Specularia perfoliata (L.) A.DC.
Synonyms of Triodanis perfoliata subsp. biflora (18) (Updated on 12-28-21 from POWO): Asyneuma anhuiense B.A.Shen, Campanula biflora Ruiz & Pav., Campanula intermedia Engelm. ex Nutt., Campanula ludoviciana Torr. ex A.Gray, Campanula montevidensis Spreng., Dysmicodon californicum Nutt., Dysmicodon ovatum Nutt., Heterocodon minimum Kellogg, Legousia biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Britton, Lobelia humboldtiana Schult., Pentagonia biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze, Specularia biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Specularia californica (Nutt.) Vatke, Specularia ovata (Nutt.) Vatke, Specularia perfoliata f. ramosa Arechav., Specularia perfoliata f. rigida Arechav., Triodanis biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Greene, Triodanis perfoliata var. biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) T.R.Bradley
Synonyms of Triodanis perfoliata subsp. perfoliata (autonym) (10) (Updated on 12-28-21 from POWO): Campanula amplexicaulis Michx., Campanula angulata Raf., Campanula anticensis Kunze ex A.DC., Campanula flagellaris Kunth, Campanula verticillata Hill, Dysmicodon perfoliatum (L.) Nutt., Specularia perfoliata f. alba (J.W.Voigt) Steyerm., Triodanis perfoliata f. alba J.W.Voigt, Triodanis rupestris Raf., Triodanis scabra Raf.
Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. is the correct and accepted scientific name for this species of Triodanis. It was named and described as such by Julius (Aloysius) Nieuwland in American Midland Naturalist in 1914. It was previously named and described as Campanula perfoliata by Carl von Linnaeus in the first volume of the first edition of Species Plantarum in 1753.
Accepted Infraspecific Names (2) (updated on 12-28-21 from POWO): Triodanis perfoliata subsp. biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Lammers, *Triodanis perfoliata subsp. perfoliata (autonym). *When infraspecific taxon are named, an autonym (“type-specimen”) is automatically generated whose description is closest to the (original) species. All have their own list of synonyms…
Triodanis perfoliata subsp. biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Lammers is an accepted subspecies of Triodanis perfoliata. It was named and described as such by Thomas G. Lammers in Novon in 2006. It was previously named and described as Campanula biflora by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavon in Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis in 1799. Some authorities do not recognize this taxon as a separate species. The two are quite similar and it has to do with their flower types (reproduction) from what I have read. You can read about it by clicking HERE…
The genus, Triodanis Raf., was named and described by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in New Flora and Botany of North America in 1838.
As of 12-28-21 when this page was last updated, Plants of the World Online by Kew lists 6 species in the Triodanis genus. It is a member of the plant family Campanulaceae with 89 genera. Those numbers could change as updates are made on POWO.
The above distribution map for Triodanis perfoliata is from Plants of the World Online. Areas in green are where the species is native and blue where it has been introduced. You can view the map for Triodanis perfoliata subsp. biflora by clicking on the link to POWO. The map on the USDA Plants Database is similar but doesn’t include the state of Nevada. The USDA doesn’t list lower taxon for this species.
The map on iNaturalist shows where members have made observations. Anyone can join and it is a great website to confirm and share your observations. The maps on iNaturalist are continually updated as members post new observations.
THERE ARE SEVERAL LINKS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE FOR FURTHER READING AND TO HELP WITH A BETTER POSITIVE ID.
I was walking along the edge of the back pasture on May 24 in 2020 and stumpled upon a neat plant I hadn’t noticed before. It was only 6-8″ tall and it would have been very easy to overlook growing in tall grass. Unfortunately, there were no flowers left, just remains of what was. The light green, rounded, clasping leaves were enough to identify the species as Triodanis perfoliata commonly known as the Clasping Venus Looking Glass.
At the moment, I don’t know much about the differences between Triodanis perfoliata subsp. perfoliata and Triodanis perfoliata subsp. biflora. They may look exactly alike or have subtle differences… Their ranges overlap in most areas and apparently hybridize. As I mentioned, not all authorities accept the subspecies and consider them the same.
I apologize for not writing descriptions at the moment. I am busy updating plant pages and writing new pages for wildflowers I identified over the summer (plus adding more photos to previously published pages). Writing descriptions in my own words can be a lengthy process, so I decided to just make new pages and come back later and write the descriptions. This is a winter project but sometimes I get behind and it takes longer. I need to continually update because plant names change, the number of species and genera fluctuates, and I want to be as accurate as I can. There are several very good websites below that can help with a positive ID. We are all a work in progress.
On farther down, there are more photos of observations in 2021…
I walked to the back of the farm on May 24 in 2021 mainly to see if I could find any Triodanis perfoliata where I had seen the plant in 2020. Unfortunately, there were none to be found…
THEN ON JUNE 15…
I had bought a new camera so I was anxious to give it a workout even though it was getting late. At about 8:30 as I was getting ready to cross from the southeast corner of the back part of the farm into the south hayfield, I looked down and LOW AN BEHOLD there was single Triodanis perfoliata! Unfortunately, it had no flowers. As in 2020, the flowers had already ran their course.
THEN ON JUNE 16…
After I took the above photos on June 15, I walked along the sough side of the south hayfield and took several more photos. The light was brighter in that area so I was able to get a few more shots before walking back to the house. It became so dark the photos of a few species had to be retaken. SO, on the 16th, I went back to the south hayfield. I looked down after entering the area and HOLY CRAP! There were A LOT of Triodanis perfoliata, and some still had flowers!!!
I have enjoyed photographing and learning about the many wildflowers growing on the farm and other areas. My farm is in Windsor, Missouri in Pettis County (Henry County is across the street and Benton and Johnson aren’t far away). I have grown over 500 different plants and identified over 100 species of wildflowers (most have pages listed on the right side of the page). I am not an expert, botanist, or horticulturalist. I just like growing, photographing, and writing about my experience. I rely on several websites for ID and a few horticulturalists I contact if I cannot figure them out. Wildflowers can be somewhat variable from location to location, so sometimes it gets a bit confusing. If you see I have made an error, please let me know so I can correct what I have written.
I hope you found this page useful and be sure to check the links below for more information. They were written by experts and provide much more information. Some sites may not be up-to-date but they are always a work in progress. If you can, I would appreciate it if you would click on the “Like” below and leave a comment. It helps us bloggers stay motivated. You can also send an email to me at firstname.lastname@example.org. I would enjoy hearing from you especially if you notice something is a bit whacky.
FOR FURTHER READING:
PLANTS OF THE WORLD ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
INTERNATIONAL PLANT NAMES INDEX (GENUS/SPECIES)
WORLD FLORA ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
MSU-MIDWEST WEEDS AND WILDFLOWERS
KANSAS WILDFLOWERS AND GRASSES
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
LADY BIRD JOHNSON WILDFLOWER CENTER
MARYLAND BIODIVERSITY PROJECT
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON-BURKE HERBARIUM
FLORIDA WILDFLOWER FOUNDATION
NOTE: The data (figures, maps, accepted names, etc.) may not match on these websites. It depends on when and how they make updates and when their sources make updates. Some websites have hundreds and even many thousands of species to keep up with. Accepted scientific names change periodically and it can be hard to keep with as well. Some of the links may use a name that is a synonym on other sites. In my opinion, Plants of the World Online by Kew is the most reliable and up-to-date plant database and they make updates on a regular basis. I make updates “at least” once a year and when I write new pages or add new photos but I do get behind. We are all a work in progress. 🙂