Oenothera macrocarpa (Syn. Oenothera missouriensis)(Bigfruit Evening Primrose, Missouri Evening Primrose)

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) after I brought it home on 5-26-20, #704-3.

Bigfruit Evening Primrose, Missouri Evening Primrose. Missouri Primrose, Fluttermill, Ozark Sundrop

Oenothera macrocarpa

(Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. macrocarpa)

ee-no-THEE-ruh ma-kro-KAR-pa

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY AWARD OF GARDEN MERIT

Synonyms of Oenothera macrocarpa (1) (Updated on 12-6-21 from Plants of the World Online): Megapterium macrocarpum (Nutt.) R.R.Gates
Synonyms of Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. macrocarpa (7) (Updated on 12-6-21): Megapterium missouriense (Sims) Spach, Megapterium nuttallianum Spach, Oenothera alata Nutt., Oenothera macrocarpa var. missouriensis (Sims) Carrière, Oenothera missouriensis Sims, Oenothera missouriensis f. elongata F.C.Gates, Oenothera missouriensis var. latifolia A.Gray

Oenothera macrocarpa Nutt. is the accepted scientific name for this species of Oenothera. It was named and described as such by Thomas Nuttall in the Catalogue of New and Interesting Plants Collected in Upper Louisiana in 1813. 

Accepted Infraspecific Names (5) (Updated on 12-6-21): Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. fremontii (S.Watson) W.L.Wagner, Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. incana (A.Gray) W.L.Wagner, *Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. macrocarpa (autonym)Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. mexicana W.L.Wagner, Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. oklahomensis (Norton) W.L.Wagner. *When infraspecific taxon are named, an autonym (“type-specimen”) is automatically generated whose description is closest to the (original) species. I am not sure how the species and the autonym can have different synonyms… Plants found in Missouri are assigned to Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. macrocarpa.

The genus, Oenothera L., was named and described as such by Carl von Linnaeus in the first volume of the first edition of Species Plantarum in 1753.

As of 12-5-21 when this page was last updated, Plants of the World Online by Kew lists 155 species in the Oenothera genus. It is a member of the plant family Onagraceae with 21 genera. Those numbers could change as updates are made on POWO.

Distribution map of Oenothera macrocarpa from Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/. Retrieved on December 6, 2021.

The above distribution map is from Plants of the World Online. Areas in green are where the species is native and purple where it has been introduced. The map on the USDA Plants Database for the United States is the same.

The map on iNaturalist shows where members have made observations. Anyone can join and it is a great website to confirm and share your observations. The maps on iNaturalist are continually updated as members post new observations.

THERE ARE SEVERAL LINKS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE FOR FURTHER READING AND TO HELP WITH A POSITIVE ID.

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-26-20, #704-4.

I found this Oenothera macrocarpa at one of the local greenhouses on May 26 in 2020. The label said Oenothera missouriensis and that it was an Evening Primrose. Oenothera missouriensis is a synonym of the autonym Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. macrocarpa. It goes by several common names such as Bigfruit Evening Primrose, Missouri Evening Primrose. Missouri Primrose, Fluttermill, Ozark Sundrop, and possibly others. The name Bigfruit Evening Primrose was given due to their strange oddly shaped fruit.

The map on Plants of the World Online indicates it is a native species in nine states in the United States and part of Mexico. It has also been introduced to Austria and Czechoslovakia. No map is perfect and the species (as a whole) could have a broader range. Also, even if it is found in one location, the entire state (or country) will be highlighted. If you zoom in on a state on the USDA map, it will show counties where the species (or subspecies) has been found. The Missouri Plants website says plants found in Missouri are referable to Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. macrocarpa. The other subspecies have their own geographic range and possibly overlap. Each subspecies have their own feature characteristics that set them apart from the others.

A few days after I brought this plant home, I put it in the flower bed behind the old foundation where my grandparent’s old home was. It did well over the summer but didn’t return in 2021.

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-26-20, #704-5.

I apologize for not writing descriptions at the moment. I am busy updating the plant pages, adding photos I took over the summer and adding pages for plants I identified in 2021. This is a wintertime project… I will go back later and add descriptions as I have time. There are several links at the bottom of the page written by experts that know much more than I do. Writing descriptions of the plant, flowers, stems, leaves, etc. is a lengthy process and I get behind. 🙂

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-26-20, #704-6.

 

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-27-20, #705-1.

The flowers of the Oenothera macrocarpa may begin to open late in the afternoon to early evening and remain open during the night. On cloudy days they may remain open longer but normally they only last for one day.

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-27-20, #705-2.

 

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-27-20, #705-3.

The above photo was taken at 8:37 AM on May 27. It was cloudy and a bit rainy.

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-27-20, #705-4.

 

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-29-20, #706-1.

The above photo was taken at about 7:30 PM on May 29. We had several cloudy days…

Oenothera macrocarpa (Bigfruit Evening Primrose) on 5-29-20, #706-2.

NICE!

I have enjoyed photographing and learning about the many wildflowers growing on the farm and other areas. My farm is in Windsor, Missouri in Pettis County (Henry County is across the street and Benton and Johnson aren’t far away). I have grown over 500 different plants and identified over 100 species of wildflowers (most have pages listed on the right side of the page). I am not an expert, botanist, or horticulturalist. I just like growing, photographing, and writing about my experience. I rely on several websites for ID and a few horticulturalists I contact if I cannot figure them out. Wildflowers can be somewhat variable from location to location, so sometimes it gets a bit confusing. If you see I have made an error, please let me know so I can correct what I have written.

I hope you found this page useful and be sure to check the links below for more information. They were written by experts and provide much more information. Some sites may not be up-to-date but they are always a work in progress. If you can, I would appreciate it if you would click on the “Like” below and leave a comment. It helps us bloggers stay motivated. You can also send an email to me at thebelmontrooster@yahoo.com. I would enjoy hearing from you especially if you notice something is a bit whacky.

FOR FURTHER READING:
PLANTS OF THE WORLD ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
INTERNATIONAL PLANT NAMES INDEX (GENUS/SPECIES)
TROPICOS (GENUS/SPECIES)
WIKIPEDIA (GENUS/SPECIES)
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
DAVE’S GARDEN
MISSOURI PLANTS
MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN
MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION
iNATURALIST
WILDFLOWER SEARCH
ILLINOIS WILDFLOWERS
KANSAS WILDFLOWERS AND GRASSES
LADY BIRD JOHNSON WILDFLOWER CENTER
FLORA FINDER
GARDENIA
HIGH PLAINS GARDENING
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
THE PRARIE ECOLOGIST
ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
U.S. WILDFLOWERS

NOTE: The data (figures, maps, accepted names, etc.) may not match on these websites. It depends on when and how they make updates and when their sources make updates. Some websites have hundreds and even many thousands of species to keep up with. Accepted scientific names change periodically and it can be hard to keep with as well. Some of the links may use a name that is a synonym on other sites. In my opinion, Plants of the World Online by Kew is the most reliable and up-to-date plant database and they make updates on a regular basis. I make updates “at least” once a year and when I write new pages or add new photos but I do get behind. We are all a work in progress. 🙂