Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox Eye Daisy)

Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-Eye Daisy on 6-19-19, #592-21.

Ox-Eye Daisy, Dog Daisy, Field Daisy, Marguerite, Moon Daisy, Moon-Penny, Poor-Land Penny, Poverty Daisy, White Daisy

Leucanthemum vulgare

lew-KANTH-ih-mum  vul-GAIR-ee

Synonyms of Leucanthemum vulgare (3) (Updated on 10-21-21 from Plants of the World Online): Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Leucanthemum ageratifolium Pau, Pontia vulgaris (Lam.) Bubani
Synonyms of Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. vulgare (30) (Updated on 10-21-21): Bellis major Garsault, Chamaemelum leucanthemum E.H.L.Krause, Chrysanthemum alpicola (Gremli) H.Hess, Landolt & Hirzel, Chrysanthemum dentatum Gilib., Chrysanthemum lanceolatum Vest, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. integrifolium Heer, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. nanum Heer, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. subpinnatifidum Fernald, Chrysanthemum pratense Salisb., Chrysanthemum sylvestre Willd., Chrysanthemum vulgare (Lam.) Parsa, Chrysanthemum vulgare (Lam.) Gaterau, Leucanthemum ageratifolium Pau, Leucanthemum leucanthemum Rydb., Leucanthemum praecox (Horvatic) Horvatic, Leucanthemum praecox var. alpicola (Gremli) Villard, Leucanthemum praecox var. autumnale (Saint-Amans) Villard, Leucanthemum praecox var. rhodopaeum Kuzmanov & R.H.Kestenova, Leucanthemum tubuliflorum Tinney, Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. heterophyllum (Willd.) Soó, Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. multicaule A.P.Khokhr., Matricaria leucanthemum Scop., Phalacrodiscus lanceolatus Less., Pyrethrum leucanthemum Franch., Tanacetum affine Simonk., Tanacetum alpinum Simonk., Tanacetum auriculatum Simonk., Tanacetum coronulatum Simonk., Tanacetum leucanthemum Sch.Bip., Tanacetum serotinum Simonk.

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. is the correct and accepted scientific name for this species of Leucanthemum. It was named and described as such by Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck in Flore Françoise in 1779.

Accepted Ifraspecific Names (3): Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. parviceps (Briq. & Cavill.) Vogt & Greuter, Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. pujiulae Sennen, Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. vulgare (autonym). When infraspecific taxon are named, an autonym (“type-specimen”) is automatically generated whose description is closest to the (original) species.

The genus, Leucanthemum Mill., was named and described as such by Philip Miller in the fourth edition of The Gardeners Dictionary in 1754. 

Plants of the World Online by Kew lists 48 species in the genus (as of 10-21-20 when this page was last updated). It is a member of the plant family Asteraceae with 1,677 genera. Those numbers could change as updates are made on POWO. The number of genera in the family fluctuates quite often. 

Distribution map for Leucanthemum vulgare from Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/. Retrieved on February 24, 2020.

The above distribution map of Leucanthemum vulgare from Plants of the World Online shows its wide range. Areas in green show where the species is native and purple where it has been introduced. POWO gets their maps for the plant family Asteraceae for the United States and Canada from Flora of North America which apparently is not up to date… I mainly used this map to show where the species is native.

Distribution map for Leucanthemum vulgare from the USDA Plants Database. Published on the internet at https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov/home. Retrieved on May 15, 2021.

The map on the USDA Plants Database for North America shows the species is found in all 50 states and most of Canada. Can’t get much more widespread than that…

The map on iNaturalist shows where members have made observations. Anyone can join and it is a great website to confirm and share your observations. The maps on iNaturalist are continually updated as members post new observations.

THERE ARE SEVERAL LINKS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE FOR FURTHER READING AND TO HELP WITH A BETTER POSITIVE ID.

Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-Eye Daisy on 6-19-19, #592-22.

The flowers consist of 15-35 ray florets, which most people call petals, and are usually 1 1/4”-2” in diameter. The petals have toothed ends but you can see that in the above photo. Maybe I can get a close-up at some point. The center of the flower consists of who knows how many disc flowers which, of course, are yellow. The yellow corollas are 5-lobed. Check out Missouri Plants and you can see a close-up of the disc.

Fowers can produce up to 200 seeds each and plants as many as 26,000 seeds that can remain viable for up to 40 years!

Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-Eye Daisy on 6-19-19, #592-23.

The stems of Leucanthemum vulgare are generally glabrous (not hairy) but sometimes slightly hairy. GEEZ! Branching occurs mainly from the base of the plant where there are usually a lot of leaves. 

Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-Eye Daisy on 6-19-19, #592-24.

The shape of the leaves is called “oblanceolate” (lanceolate with the more pointed end at the base) or “spatulate” (broad at the base). I wonder why they don’t call them “spathulate” (broad at the tip (apex) and tapered toward the base)? Lower and basal leaves have kind of long petioles (stem between the main stem and base of the leaf) while the upper leaves are sessile (no petioles) and may even tend to clasp the main stem. The leaves are deeply serrated, sometimes cut nearly to the midrib and are hairless.

If allowed to spread, Leucanthemum vulgare will reduce the amount of quality grazing land. In natural habitats, it can invade and displace colonies of natural species. Studies have also shown that Leucanthemum vulgare carries several crop diseases.

Leucanthemum vulgare is fairly popular as an ornamental perennial plant in flower beds and wildflower gardens. There are several cultivars available. It will grow well in full sun to part shade and prefers a fairly moist environment.

I photographed the Leucanthemum vulgare at a friend’s farm in Johnson County. Steyermark’s Flora of Missouri doesn’t list them in Johnson County, but indeed they are there. Hopefully, I will find this colony again in 2020 and may even bring a few to my farm. I live on a small farm in Windsor, Missouri (the city limits is across the street and on the north and south side). I am in Pettis County but Henry is across the street and Benton and Johnson Counties aren’t far away.

I have enjoyed photographing and learning about the many wildflowers growing on the farm and other areas. I have grown over 500 different plants and most have pages listed on the right side of the blog. I am not an expert, botanist, or horticulturalist. I just like growing, photographing and writing about my experience. I rely on several websites for ID and a horticulturalist I contact if I cannot figure them out. The iNaturalist website also has a great drag-and-drop way to identify wildflowers, brds, insects, etc. Wildflowers can be somewhat variable from location to location, so sometimes it gets a bit confusing. If you see I have made an error, please let me know so I can correct what I have written.

I hope you found this page useful and be sure to check the links below for more information. Some databases may not be up-to-date but they are always a work in progress. They were written by experts and provide much more information. If you can, I would appreciate it if you would click on the “Like” below and leave a comment. It helps us bloggers stay motivated. You can also send an email to me at thebelmontrooster@yahoo.com. I would enjoy hearing from you especially if you find something is a bit whacky (like the links below not working).

FOR FURTHER READING:
PLANTS OF THE WORLD ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
INTERNATIONAL PLANT NAMES INDEX (GENUS/SPECIES)

TROPICOS (GENUS/SPECIES)
FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA (GENUS/SPECIES)
WORLD FLORA ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
WIKIPEDIA (GENUS/SPECIES)
DAVE’S GARDEN
MISSOURI PLANTS
iNATURALIST
WILDFLOWER SEARCH
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
ILLINOIS WILDFLOWERS
MINNESOTA WILDFLOWERS
KANSAS WILDFLOWERS AND GRASSES
PFAF (PLANTS FOR A FUTURE)
GO BOTANY
FLORA FINDER

NOTE: The data (figures, maps, accepted names, etc.) may not match on these websites. It depends on when and how they make updates and when their sources make updates. Some websites have hundreds and even many thousands of species to keep up with. Accepted scientific names change periodically and it can be hard to keep with as well. Some of the links may use a name that is a synonym on other sites. In my opinion, Plants of the World Online by Kew is the most reliable and up-to-date plant database and they make updates on a regular basis. I make updates “at least” once a year and when I write new pages or add new photos but I do get behind. We are all a work in progress. 🙂

 

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