American Field Pansy, Field Pansy, Wild Pansy, Johnny Jump Up
vy (VYE)-OH-la raf-in-ess-kee-eye (?)
Synonyms of Viola rafinesquei (5) (Updated on 12-19-21 from Plants of the World Online): Mnemion rafinesquei (Greene) Nieuwl., Mnemion tenellum Webb, Viola bicolor Pursh, Viola kitaibeliana var. rafinesquei (Greene) Fernald, Viola rafinesquei f. minor Moldenke
Viola rafinesquei Greene is the accepted scientific name for the American Field Pansy. It was named and described as such by Edward Lee Greene in Pittonia in 1899.
Most websites and databases still list Viola bicolor Pursh as the accepted scientific name. It was named and described as such by Frederick Traugott Pursh in Flora Americae Septentrionalis in 1813.
To read why POWO is sticking with Viola rafinesquei, you can click HERE to read Mr. Greene’s original description on page 9 in Pittonia via BHL (Bioheritage Library).
The genus, Viola L., was named and described as such by Carl von Linnaeus in the second volume of the first edition of Species Plantarum in 1753.
As of 12-19-21 when this page was last updated, Plants of the World Online lists 664 species in the Viola genus. It is a member of the plant family Violaceae with a total of 25 genera. Those numbers could change as updates are made on POWO.
The above distribution map for Viola rafinesquei is from Plants of the World Online. Areas in green are where the species is native. Other maps for Viola bicolor normally show Idaho as well.
The map on iNaturalist (for Viola bicolor at the moment) shows where members have made observations. Anyone can join and it is a great website to confirm and share your observations. The maps on iNaturalist are continually updated as members post new observations.
THERE ARE SEVERAL LINKS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE FOR FURTHER READING AND TO HELP WITH A BETTER POSITIVE ID.
I found this Viola species in an area where hay had been previously stored on my farm in 2020. I identified it as Viola bicolor and it became Research Grade on iNaturalist. The leaves match Viola bicolor Pursh on Missouri Plants so they were a deciding feature for me. Then, when I wrote this page, I saw where Plants of the World Online listed two different Viola bicolor named by two different botanists. The one here, Viola bicolor Pursh became is listed as a synonym of Viola rafinesquei Greene and Viola bicolor Hoffm. became a synonym of Viola tricolor L. The problem is, both species are quite similar and sometimes Viola tricolor produces bi-colored flowers. I had intended to get more close-up shots of the flowers in 2021 but my camera had been acting up and time went by. It was too late to take more photos by the time I bought a new camera. Another reason I am sticking with Viola rafinesquei is that Missouri Plants says Viola tricolor is rare in Missouri. OH, Viola rafinesquei (syn. Viola bicolor) is a North American native, while Viola tricolor is an introduced species.
I apologize for not writing descriptions at the moment. I am busy updating plant pages and writing new pages for wildflowers I identified over the summer (plus adding more photos to previously published pages). Writing descriptions in my own words can be a lengthy process, so I decided to just make new pages and come back later and write the descriptions. This is a winter project but sometimes I get behind and it takes longer. I need to continually update because plant names change, the number of species and genera fluctuates, and I want to be as accurate as I can. There are several very good websites below that can help with a positive ID. We are all a work in progress.
I have enjoyed photographing and learning about the many wildflowers growing on the farm and other areas. My farm is in Windsor, Missouri in Pettis County (Henry County is across the street and Benton and Johnson aren’t far away). I have grown over 500 different plants and identified over 100 species of wildflowers (most have pages listed on the right side of the page). I am not an expert, botanist, or horticulturalist. I just like growing, photographing, and writing about my experience. I rely on several websites for ID and a few horticulturalists I contact if I cannot figure them out. Wildflowers can be somewhat variable from location to location, so sometimes it gets a bit confusing. If you see I have made an error, please let me know so I can correct what I have written.
I hope you found this page useful and be sure to check the links below for more information. They were written by experts and provide much more information. Some sites may not be up-to-date but they are always a work in progress. If you can, I would appreciate it if you would click on the “Like” below and leave a comment. It helps us bloggers stay motivated. You can also send an email to me at firstname.lastname@example.org. I would enjoy hearing from you especially if you notice something is a bit whacky.
FOR FURTHER READING:
PLANTS OF THE WORLD ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
INTERNATIONAL PLANT NAMES INDEX
(Viola/V. bicolor Pursh/V. rafinesquei Greene)
TROPICOS (GENUS/V. bicolor Pursh/V. rafinesquei Greene)
FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA (GENUS/SPECIES)
WORLD FLORA ONLINE (GENUS/SPECIES)
WIKIPEDIA (GENUS/V. bicolor)
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
MSU-MIDWEST WEEDS AND WILDFLOWERS
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-WEED ID GUIDE
KANSAS WILDFLOWERS AND GRASSES
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
LADY BIRD JOHNSON WILDFLOWER CENTER
MARYLAND BIODIVERSITY PROJECT
NATIVE PLANTS OF THE CAROLINAS AND GEORGIA
THE PRARIE ECOLOGIST
EAT THE WEEDS
NOTE: The data (figures, maps, accepted names, etc.) may not match on these websites. It depends on when and how they make updates and when their sources make updates. Some websites have hundreds and even many thousands of species to keep up with. Accepted scientific names change periodically and it can be hard to keep with as well. Some of the links may use a name that is a synonym on other sites. In my opinion, Plants of the World Online by Kew is the most reliable and up-to-date plant database and they make updates on a regular basis. I make updates “at least” once a year and when I write new pages or add new photos but I do get behind. We are all a work in progress. 🙂